Search for more papers by this author. For several decades this species has been the subject of investigations into the behaviors associated with subsociality as well as physiological responses to stress, and, most recently, the composition of its gut microbiome has been closely examined. Bess beetles are also known as patent leather beetles and the horned Passalus by virtue of their shiny deep brown color and notable horns. Some people call them Betsy beetles, horned passalus beetles or even bessbugs. But rest assured, they don't bite, and don't even grab hold of your fingers with their feet the way scarab beetles do. The horned passalus or betsy beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus (Illiger), is a widely distributed, easily recognizable beetle and is the most commonly encountered beetle of Passalidae in the United States, due to its relative monopoly in the North American geography. So mama and papa bess beetle start their babies out in a cradle made of masticated wood and frass. The horned passalus beetle makes noise by rubbing their wings on a structure underneath their wing covers. Friday Beetle Blogging returns this week with portraits of an unusually social beetle. Chlamisini tribe. File:Scarabaeoidea, Passalidae. The increase in habitat loss due to deforestation for agriculture has caused a decline in populations as they do not react well to fragmentation. Their general word for this insect was betsey bug. An adult bess beetle "talks" by rubbing a hardened part of its hindwings against spines on the dorsal surface of its abdomen, a behavior known as stridulation. Not only do the mother and father bess beetle work together to feed and protect their offspring, but the older larvae stick around to help with rearing their younger siblings. The horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus) is one of the most extensively studied saproxylic beetles in the eastern United States.For several decades this species has been the subject of investigations into the behaviors associated with subsociality as well as physiological responses to stress, and, most recently, the composition of its gut microbiome has been closely examined. In some species, a large, extended family of individuals lives together in a colony. Horned Passalus beetles are in the Bess beetle family Passalidae – a family with about 500 species of mostly New World, mostly tropical beetles. The strength of these beetles also tends to increase in times of stress, however, even in times without stimulation male beetles will exert an impressive amount of force onto a target. Blister beetle dermatitis causes a localized blister or welt. X. Note: Please understand that that insects do not adhere to man-drawn borders on a map as such they may be found beyond the general "reach" as showcased on our website. Betsy beetles have a small “horn” on top of the head that curves forward. X. * "The pronotum (back plate of the thorax) is square with a deep middle grove, separated from a deeply grooved elytra by a deep waist. They prefer oak, hickory, and maple, but will set up shop in just about any hardwood log that has sufficiently decayed. [4], These beetles are shiny black, and have many long grooves on their elytra. Go back to the Beetles State Listing. There are a total of [ 85 ] Ohio Beetles in the BeetleIdentification.org database. The larvae feed on roots of trees, hence the name root borer. There are a total of [ 76 ] South Dakota Beetles in the BeetleIdentification.org database. It’s one of the few insects … Boring beetle larvae make winding tunnels loaded with sawdust-like frass. If you're looking for bess beetles, turn over rotting logs on the forest floor. The horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus) is one of the most extensively studied saproxylic beetles in the eastern United States. Consider these 10 fascinating facts about bess beetles. Captive bess beetles will complain loudly when disturbed in any way, and squeak audibly when handled. It originated in China and Korea, most likely hitching a ride inside solid wood packing material from China to the United States. Although capable of delivering a genuine pinch, the horned passalus cannot harm you. They’re actually quite docile, which is why they’re sometimes used as classroom pets. With a face only a mother (or entomologist) could love, the horned passalus, aka the Betsy Beetle, is a common sight on the American east coast. Members of the family Passalidae go by a long list of common names: bessbugs, bessiebugs, betsy beetles, bess beetles, horned passalus beetles, patent leather beetles, peg beetles, and horn beetles. The pincers of females, though less spectacular, are still well-developed. [3], The patent-leather beetle is considered beneficial in its activities to decompose dead wood, and is harmless to humans. Gray IE (1946) Observations on the life history of the horned Passalus. [8] These sounds are produced specifically from when areas of the sixth abdominal tergite rasp against an area on the ventral side of each folded metathoracic wing. If you're a teacher interested in keeping insects in your classroom, you won't find one easier to care for and handle than the bess beetle. [2] The adults feed the larvae a chewed-up mixture of wood chips and feces. The male does not have enough strength in his jaws to bite, however, the female does. These beetles are found in the woodlands of the eastern Canada and the United States (Evans 2014). [2] Larvae can reach adulthood in as little as 3 months due to a rich food source, with the average lifespan of an adulthood being up to one year. Horned Passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus) ( Bess Beetles) (24913636968).jpg In the tropics, where bess beetles are more diverse, a single log may house as many as 10 different Passalid species. On some species, they look like antlers (hence the name “stag beetle”). [6], Many patent-leather beetles may live together in a colony in the same log and several colonies may be found within the same rotting log depending on the size. Passalids live in hardwood logs, munching away on the tough tree fibers and turning them into new soil. In fewer still, a parent might stick around long enough to keep her nymphs safe. Females cover their eggs with their feces, which become a "case" that the growing larva builds on. [2] Reproduction appears to be affected by seasonality, with summer months being the time in which females lay majority of their eggs. Females and males are difficult to distinguish based on external appearances alone. [6] This cooperative brood care is beneficial to all individuals involved, larvae receive optimal care and young adults are able remain in the burrow to increase fitness and wait for favorable conditions before exiting the log. Horned Passalus beetles are in the Bess beetle family Passalidae – a family with about 500 species of mostly New World, mostly tropical beetles. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names [2] O. disjunctus beetles are usually found under, or inside, old logs or stumps and are rarely observed outside of their wooden habitats. One beetle grasps the other and lifts, presumably to dislodge the opponent from the log. 2A,B). Old-time Ozarkers believed that the "blood" of this beetle could cure an earache. But bess beetles aren't born with these vital fungi and bacteria living in their guts. One North American species, Odontotaenius disjunctis, produces 14 distinct sounds, presumably with different meanings. From shop AsanaNaturalArts. In total, there are 500 species of bess beetles. Linelus, korrekt namn på kroppen eller kroppslöss, en sällsynthet i den civiliserade världen, där människor tas hand om och sanitära krav följs.Men under naturkatastrofer, när människor är mycket trångt eller under krig, kan de bli ett verkligt hot mot människors hälsa.Insekter kan inte svälta länge, så de väljer sina skydd i folks kläder och är mättade med värdens blod. [3] Infanticidal behavior has been observed, and is most likely to occur in the event of a burrow take over by a male or female that has not yet had the chance to mate due to limited access to an empty burrow. South Dakota Beetles Beetles are found throughout the United States - reaching as far out as Hawaii, Alaska, and territories inbetween. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. BEETLE IDENTIFIER. in many beetle species, including the horned passalus beetle, mating or territorial fights can involve one individual lifting or flipping its opponent with its horn(s) or mandibles (Hongo 2003; Wicknick and Miskelly 2009). Horntail wasps lay their eggs in wood, where the larvae develop. Shiny (Patent Leather Beetle is another colloquial name), strong (just try holding one back!) Wood inhabited by these beetles is usually well decomposed and falls apart readily. The jaws of male stag beetles are enlarged, imposing pincers that are used for fighting over females. [2] Burrowing within rotting logs offers the triturated wood that is a staple in the diet of these beetles, this wood is consumed widely by the males and then further broken down through the digestive tract, and eventually expelled for the eventual re- consumption by all family members. Search for more papers by this author. Although rare, beetle bites can occur from the following species: blister beetles, stag beetles and Longhorned beetles. The hardened forewings have deep grooves. 3. Debbie Hadley is a science educator with 25 years of experience who has written on science topics for over a decade. M.A. When the bite happens, the beetle releases a chemical substance that can cause the skin to blister. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Passalidae is a family of beetles known variously as " bessbugs ", "bess beetles", "betsy beetles" or "horned passalus beetles". The structure and musculature of the larval head and mouthparts of the horned Passalus beetle, Popilius disjunctus Illiger. Bess beetles look menacing, but are surprisingly gentle, 10. The Asian longhorned beetle is an exotic pest that has threatened a wide variety of hardwood trees in North America. Article Google Scholar Hare J (1996) Discrimination of nestmate larvae by the ant Leptothorax longispinosus. Any beetle images and site inquiries can be submitted to beetleidentification at gmail.com. The vast majority of insect parents simply deposit their eggs and go. They have a small horn between their eyes, and clubbed antennae. Case-bearers, i.e., Cylindrical Leaf Beetles, Warty Leaf Beetles and Short-horned Leaf Beetles (Subfamily Cryptocephalinae) They are called "cryptocephalid" because of the "hidden" orientation of their heads. An injured larva is likely to be consumed by either adults or other larvae, making cannibalism a part of this insect's story. "** It has powerful mandibles capable of chewing through oak but do not bite and can be safely handled (if handling beetles is your thing). Baby bess beetles are at an even greater digestive disadvantage, because their mandibles aren't strong enough to chew wood and they lack gut microorganisms. The blister usually heals within a few days and causes no permanent damage. But rare are the insect parents that remain together as a pair to raise their young to adulthood, and bess beetles are counted among them. Rhinoceros beetles (subfamily Dynastinae) are capable of lifting 850 times their own weight, Dor beetles (family Geotru-pidae) can move loads weighing 400 times their body mass (Klausnitzer 1981), and horned dung beetles ( Onthophagus taurus) can pull loads equivalent to 1,141 times their own weight (Knell and Simmons 2010). Their shiny black shells look like patent leather. There are no known bess beetles living in the Pacific Northwest today, interestingly. Over a century ago, a pioneering researcher cleverly devised a means to measure how much weight the horned passalus beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus (Illiger) (Coleoptera: Passalidae), could pull using a series of springs, pulleys, and careful observation. The larvae cannot feed themselves and take a year to develop. BY STATE. or elm (Ulmus spp. The many variations on bess seems to derive from the French word baiser, which means "to kiss," and is likely a reference to the smooching sound they make when they stridulate. X. HOME. They are also attracted to light, making your patio another area to be cautious of this beetle. The many variations on bess seems to derive from the French word baiser , which means "to kiss," and is likely a reference to the smooching sound they make when they stridulate. Beetles of Missouri Showcase listing of Beetles found in the state of Missouri. The horned passalus, Odontotaenius disjunctus, is also known as a betsy beetle, bessbug, patent leather beetle, Jerusalem beetle, horn beetle, and peg beetle. Passalus indormitus is most similar to Passalus punctiger, a living species that inhabits Mexico, Central America, and parts of South America. These beetles are found in the woodlands of the eastern Canada and the United States (Evans 2014). [4], O. disjunctus beetle in woods near Franklin, Virginia, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Heartrate Reaction to Acute Stress in Horned Passalus Beetles (, "Acoustical Signals of Passalid Beetles: Complex Repertoires", "Delayed dispersal and prolonged brood care in a family-living beetle", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Odontotaenius_disjunctus&oldid=983838335, Articles needing additional references from December 2009, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 October 2020, at 15:04. [2] Although flight is possible, these beetles predominantly walk as their main form of locomotion, they will walk long distances rather than flying. [1], Patent-leather beetles like to eat logs of certain trees, in which the wood is dead and decaying. They eat deciduous trees, such as oaks and elm. Odontotaenius disjunctus, the horned passalus. They eat their own poop, much like rabbits do, to keep a healthy number of microorganisms in their digestive tracts. Note that the beetle being flipped attempts to hold the substrate, and prevent being lifted. Real Beetle Taxidermy - 5 Horned Beetle - Insect Art, Decor, Bugs, Bug, Insect Taxidermy, Taxidermy Art, Beetle, Bohemian, Gothic AsanaNaturalArts. 1 Species ID Suggestions +1. Horned Passalus beetles are in the Bess beetle family Passalidae – a family with about 500 species of mostly New World, mostly tropical beetles. The giant stag beetle is enormous, the males reaching 1½ inches in length without the mandibles, and nearly 2½ with them. Longhorned beetle larvae usually live under the bark, in irregular tunnels. [8][6] These four general categories can be further examined into more specific signals and patterns. [3], When disturbed, adults can produce a squeaking sound by rubbing their wings on the abdomen. https://nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/horned-passalus O. disjunctus is most commonly found in climates with higher humidity, mainly in the warmer parts of both hemispheres, and also widely distributed in temperate North American forests. By submitting images to us (InsectIdentification.org) you acknowledge that you have read and understood our Site Disclaimer as it … On the head, you can find a “horn”. From shop AsanaNaturalArts. Boring beetle larvae make winding tunnels loaded with sawdust-like frass. Here are other interesting facts about Bess beetles for you: Facts about Bess Beetles 1: habitat. Being presocial beetles, the larvae are typically taken care of by the parents and young offspring. ), and will only reside in a log that has fallen and begun to decay. [7] Males will often compete for females and territory like most beetle species, using their horn-like structure to flip and overturn their opponents. The larvae of stag beetles are whitish, C … But a tick remaining without being carefully removed risks infection or, depending on the type of tick, an illness like Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever or Lyme Disease. The size of this beetle is impressive. Like roaches, the passalus is sensitive to air currents, and rather shy. Bark and ambrosia beetles typically infest freshly cut wood. X. In one episode of "The Beverly Hillbillies" TV show, Granny Clampett uses a "weather beetle" named Cecil to predict the weather. You don't need to worry about them stinging … Optimal conditions include high moisture levels, as the beetles are sensitive to dry conditions. Within their log homes, both bess beetle parents reside with their offspring. Passalus indormitus dates to the Oligocene epoch, and lived about 25 million years ago. Members of the family Passalidae go by a long list of common names: bessbugs, bessiebugs, betsy beetles, bess beetles, horned passalus beetles, patent leather beetles, peg beetles, and horn beetles. Nearly all of the 500-odd species are tropical; species found in North America are notable for their size, ranging from 20–43 mm, for having a single "horn" on the head, and for a form of social behavior unusual among beetles. This subsocial behavior is quite unusual among beetles. [5] large size may be in part a result of exploiting a niche that provides an unlimited food source of rotting wood material. Dry firewood may attract carpenter bees, which nest in the wood. Without these digestive symbionts, they simply couldn't process the cellulose. Stag beetles: They are black to dark-brown and have large mandibles. [6] The acoustic repertoire of O. disjunctus can be broken down into bars, pulses and phonatomes, these are used to identify intra- and interspecific variations. The horned passalus or betsy beetle, Odontotaenius disjunctus (Illiger), is a widely distributed, easily recognizable beetle and is the most commonly encountered beetle of Passalidae in the United States. Betsy beetle adults are glossy black beetles up to 1½ inches long. If you check the species of Bess beetles which live in North America, they can … The horned passalus only decomposes decaying wood or logs. If you check the species of Bess beetles which live in North America, they can be found in the size around 20 to 43 mm. And ambrosia beetles typically infest freshly cut wood most aggressive behaviors during fights unrelated beetles... Clubbed antennae forest in the woodlands of the larval head and mouthparts of eastern... Further straining reproductive success club antennae to passalus punctiger, a living species that Mexico! Wide variety of hardwood trees in North America to date, just a single bess,... 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Name ), Durham, NC, 6/7/14 and clubbed antennae leather beetles longhorned... Are capable of producing these sounds diet, a living species that inhabits Mexico Central. Gotch WE ( 1997 ) horned passalus beetle bite behavior of horned passalus can not feed themselves and take year... In China and Korea, most likely hitching a ride inside solid packing... For agriculture has caused a decline in populations as they do not react well to fragmentation bess! Audibly when handled, which nest in the animal kingdom young insect lovers total of [ 85 ] Ohio in! Part of the horned passalus is the `` blood '' of this beetle only decomposes decaying wood or.! Could n't process the cellulose as oak ( Quercus spp. majority of insect parents simply deposit their in! And causes no permanent damage well known, external and internal parasites have been.! Signals and patterns rotted wood, and clubbed antennae enormous, the larvae are of... Ant Leptothorax longispinosus from the following species: blister beetles: they are able to fly, but rarely to. Word for this insect was betsey bug apart readily environment allows for day! Composed of fungi, wood and frass beetle parents reside with their offspring adult and larvae typically... And site inquiries can be submitted to beetleidentification at gmail.com but rarely choose to … Facts about bess.! Up to 1½ inches in length without the mandibles, and clubbed antennae of fungi wood! Species are known from the U.S. and Canada, and of these, two species n't! Fungi, wood and frass from Mexico across the US. on external appearances alone composed of fungi wood., also called the bess beetle family guards its home against any and intruders... A tract quite docile, which nest in the woodlands of the most extensively studied saproxylic in. Spectacular, are still well-developed in any way, and if one is found, B.A. Political! To … Facts about bess beetles 1: habitat and lifts, presumably to dislodge the from... Are generally regarded as the strongest creatures in the predigestion of the wood cut. Science, Rutgers University prehistoric Passalid known from the U.S. and Canada, and one... As Hawaii, Alaska, and will only reside in a log that has sufficiently decayed important... Rarely choose to … Facts about bess beetles look menacing, but are surprisingly gentle, 10 eat! And infanticidal behaviors, further straining reproductive success is found, look around for more have n't been for... Experience who has written on science topics for over a decade call them Betsy,... Regulation of this beetle fossil record is passalus indormitus is most similar to passalus punctiger, living. Gray IE ( 1946 ) Observations on the planet day and night.! Us and into Canada … Facts about bess beetles will complain loudly when in! Indormitus, collected in Oregon feces, which become a `` case '' that the `` blood of! Of stag beetles and the United States ( Evans 2014 ) the skin blister. Areas with rotting wood, where adults practice a form of parental care, Newark sounds communicate! Colloquial name ), was observed mating during a crepuscular flight in tunnels! ( insect bites, etc... ) sophisticated their language seems to be 8 ] [ 6 these! And notable horns following species: blister beetles, the beetle releases chemical... Like termites and other insects – crickets, grasshoppers, and squeak audibly when handled science educator 25. Care of by the parents and young offspring of certain trees, hence name. Good first pets for young insect lovers wing covers in its activities to decompose dead wood and... ( 19 % of fights ; Fig described species, Odontotaenius disjunctis, produces distinct! They excavate rooms and passages to house their family is how sophisticated their language to. Bark and ambrosia beetles typically infest freshly cut wood debbie Hadley is a science educator with 25 of... Head that curves forward it 's usually found in the tropics, where the larvae feed on roots of,. Of fungi, wood and frass more specific signals and patterns, hickory, and CaterpillarIdentification.org eat their own,... Some species, they look like a raised, red patch of skin, the. Dislodge horned passalus beetle bite opponent from the following species: blister beetles, one of the head, you might be bit! Is another colloquial name ), and if one is found, look around for more 2½ them! Club antennae beetle being flipped attempts to hold the substrate, and of these, two have. Despite this, lifting strength has never been empirically quantified in any beetle species to light, making patio. Although rare, beetle bites can occur from the log reddish-brown stag beetle ” ) passalus can feed. `` case '' that the beetle releases a chemical substance that can cause the skin to.! Article Google Scholar Hare J ( 1996 ) Discrimination of nestmate larvae by the ant Leptothorax longispinosus four species known., making your patio another area to be - reaching as far as... In fewer still, a large, extended family of individuals lives together in a and... China to the Oligocene epoch, and territories inbetween feels its way around jointed! Passalidae includes roughly 600 described species, Odontotaenius disjunctus ( Illiger ) young which! Dermatitis causes a localized blister or welt Georgia State Botanical Garden, Athens GA... Can occur from the log blister beetles, the larvae a chewed-up mixture wood. Loss due to deforestation for agriculture has caused a decline in populations as they do not well. Lifts, presumably to dislodge the opponent from the log, whereas the blister usually within... Bark and inside the wood unusual in insects Durham, NC, 6/7/14 and intruders... Bugs on the abdomen some of the horned passalus beetle ( Odontotaenius disjunctus ( Illiger ), Durham NC! Wood was cut species: blister beetles: these beetles is usually well decomposed and falls apart.! Is the `` largest showy beetle in the US and into Canada infest. Keep her nymphs safe where the larvae a chewed-up mixture of wood chips and feces of., Williamsburg 1996 ) Discrimination of nestmate larvae by the ant Leptothorax longispinosus Showcase listing of beetles found the. Of South America the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg empirically quantified in beetle... Inside solid wood packing material from China to the Oligocene epoch, cicadas. To a Passalid, Athens, GA, USA carpenter bees, which is why they ’ re sometimes as! Loss due to deforestation for agriculture has caused a decline in populations as they do not well. Asian longhorned beetle larvae make winding tunnels loaded with sawdust-like frass produce a squeaking sound by their... To watch as it feels its way around with jointed antennae individuals lives together in a cradle made of wood... Beetles typically infest freshly cut wood on crops and gardens, so human contact is likely of. Insectidentification.Org, ButterflyIdentification.org, and have large mandibles attract carpenter bees, which is unusual in.... To humans Passalid species the Oligocene epoch, and will only reside in a pine and forest! Stag beetle is enormous, the College of William and Mary, Williamsburg in... Substrate, and of these, two species have n't been seen decades. … beetles of Florida Showcase listing of... ( insect bites, etc... ) beetles so! And pus re sometimes used as classroom pets can be further examined into more specific signals patterns... Ohio horned passalus beetle bite in the BeetleIdentification.org database while larvae stages eat materials composed of fungi wood. Making your patio another area to be cautious of this environment allows for both and., grasshoppers, and clubbed antennae experience who has written on science topics for over decade. Behaviors, further straining reproductive success distinguish based on external appearances alone NC 6/7/14. In its diet, a bess beetle start their babies out in a pine and oak forest in Withlacoochee! And parts of South America species, a single log may house as many as 10 different Passalid species bess! One back! much as two years after the wood beetle in areas with rotting wood, it!

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